This week’s newsletter announces the newest version of LND, briefly describes a tool for generating bitcoin ownership proofs, and links to an Optech study about the usability of Replace-by-Fee. Also included are summaries of notable code changes to popular Bitcoin infrastructure projects.

Action items

  • Upgrade to LND 0.5.2: this minor-version release fixes bugs related to stability and improves compatibility with other LN software.


  • RBF usability study published: with only about 6% of the transactions confirmed in 2018 signaling support for BIP125 opt-in Replace-by-Fee (RBF), Optech contributor Mike Schmidt undertook an examination of almost two dozen popular Bitcoin wallets, block explorers, and other services to see how they handled either sending or receiving RBF transactions (including fee bumps). His report provides visual examples, both good and bad, of how many systems handle RBF transactions. The examples of problems are not made to criticize the pioneering developers of those systems, but to help all Bitcoin developers learn how to master the powerful fee-management capability that RBF provides. Based on the examples collected, the report concludes with a summary of recommendations for developers.

  • Tool released for generating and verifying bitcoin ownership proofs: Blockstream has released a tool that helps bitcoin custodians, such as exchanges, prove that they control a certain number of bitcoins without creating an onchain transaction. The tool works by creating an almost-valid transaction that contains all of the same information a valid transaction would contain—proving that the transaction creator had access to all of the information necessary to create a spend (e.g. the private keys). The tool is written in the Rust programming language and uses the increasingly popular BIP174 Partially Signed Bitcoin Transaction (PSBT) format for interoperability with Bitcoin Core and other Bitcoin tools. Future plans for the tool include privacy enhancements.

Notable code changes

Notable code changes this week in Bitcoin Core, LND, C-Lightning, Eclair, and libsecp256k1.

  • Bitcoin Core #14897 introduces a semi-random order biased towards outbound connections when requesting transactions, making it harder for attackers to abuse one of Bitcoin Core’s bandwidth-reduction measures. Previously, when your node received an announcement of a new transaction from one of its peers, it requested that transaction from that peer. While it waited for the transaction to be sent, it might have received announcements of the same transaction from its other peers. If the first peer hadn’t sent the transaction within two minutes, your node would then request the transaction from the second peer who announced it, again waiting two minutes before requesting it from the next peer. This allowed an attacker who opens a large number of connections to your node to potentially delay your receipt of a transaction by a large number of two-minute intervals.

    If such an attack was performed across the whole network, it might be able to prevent certain transactions from reaching miners, possibly breaking the security of protocols that rely on timely confirmation (e.g. LN payment channels). A network-wide attack could also make it easier to map the network and redirect transaction traffic in order to learn which IP address originated a transaction.

    With this PR, your node will only immediately request the transaction from the first peer that announced it if your node initially chose to open a connection to that peer (i.e. an outbound peer). If you first heard about the transaction from a peer that connected to you (an inbound peer), you’ll wait two seconds before requesting the transaction to give an outbound peer a chance to tell you about it first. If the first peer you request the transaction from has not sent it to you within a minute, you’ll request it from another randomly-selected peer. If that also doesn’t work, you’ll continue to randomly select peers to request the transaction from. This doesn’t eliminate the problem, but it does mean that an attacker who wants to delay a transaction probably needs to operate a much larger number of nodes to achieve the same delay. It’s possible that a set reconciliation technique based on something like libminisketch could provide a complete solution for any node with at least one honest peer.

  • Bitcoin Core #14491 allows the importmulti RPC to import keys specified using an output script descriptor. Keys imported this way will be converted to the current wallet datastructure, but the eventual plan is for Bitcoin Core’s wallet to use descriptors internally.

  • Bitcoin Core #14667 adds a new deriveaddress RPC that takes a descriptor containing a key path plus an extended public key and returns the corresponding address.

  • Bitcoin Core #15226 adds a blank parameter to the createwallet RPC that allows creating a wallet without an HD seed or any private keys. The wallet can then have private or public key material added to it (e.g. an HD seed using sethdseed or a watching-only address using importaddress). The wallet can also be encrypted while still blank using the encryptwallet RPC. The term “blank” is used to distinguish a wallet without keys from an “empty” wallet whose keys don’t control any bitcoins.

  • LND #2457 adds a cancelinvoice RPC to cancel an invoice that hasn’t been settled yet. If a payment for a canceled invoice arrives at your node, it’ll return the same error it would’ve used if that invoice never existed, preventing the payment from succeeding and returning all money to the spender.

  • LND #2572 adds an outgoing_chan_id parameter to the sendpayment command. You can use this parameter to specify which of your channels should be used for the first hop of the payment.

  • Eclair #736 adds support for both connecting to Tor hidden services (.onion) and operating as a hidden service. Documentation is provided for users.